情報交換 Empirical dissertations (Sciences)

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Empirical dissertations (Sciences)

An empirical dissertation focuses on the collection and analysis of original data. You usually write this type of dissertation if you are studying a subject in the natural or social sciences.

There are many different empirical research methods you can use to answer these questions - for example, experiments, observations, surveys, and interviews & write my essay.

In empirical investigations, for example, you must take into account the variables to be investigated, the reliability and validity of your measurements, and your sampling method. The aim is to deliver robust, reproducible scientific knowledge.

Examples of empirical research questions

  • How do airline workers feel about the challenges that climate change poses to their industry?

  • How effective is cognitive-behavioral therapy in treating depression in young adults?

  • What are the short-term health consequences of switching from cigarette smoking to e-cigarettes?

Non-empirical dissertations (humanities)

A non-empirical dissertation works with existing research results or other texts and provides original analyzes, critiques, and arguments, but no original data. This approach is typical of art and humanities topics.

Dissertations in the humanities are often more structured such as a long essay that builds an argument by analyzing primary and secondary sources. Instead of the standard structure described here, you can organize chapters according to different topics or case studies.

Examples of non-empirical research questions

  • What was the attitude of commentators in the British press towards the French Revolution in 1789-1792?

  • How do gender and inheritance overlap in Shakespeare's Macbeth?

  • How did the utopia of Plato's Republic and Thomas More influence the utopian socialist thinking of the 19th century?

The first steps in this type of dissertation are to decide on your topic and gather your primary and secondary resources.

Primary sources are the direct objectives of your research. It gives first-hand proof of your topic.

Secondary sources contain information that you can discuss in your analysis. It describes, interprets, or evaluates information from primary sources.

How many words does a dissertation or thesis take?

The number of dissertation words differs greatly in different areas, institutions, and educational levels:

  • A diploma thesis usually consists of 8,000 to 15,000 words

  • A master's thesis usually consists of 12,000 50,000 to XNUMX XNUMX words

  • A doctoral dissertation usually has a book-length of 70,000 to 100,000 words and write essay for me

However, none of these guidelines are strict - your word count may be lower or higher than the numbers shown here. Always read your university's guidelines to determine how long your dissertation should last.

Why is a dissertation important?

The dissertation is a test of your ability to do independent research. You have a lot of autonomy when writing your dissertation: you develop your ideas, do your research and write and structure the text yourself.

This means that whether you continue in academia or not, is important preparation for your future: it teaches you to manage your own time, generate original ideas and work independently.

The dissertation aims to create original research work on a clearly defined topic.

How do I write a dissertation or thesis?

Writing a dissertation requires planning and research skills that are of great value for your future career and within organizations.

The topic and question of the dissertation should be focused on so that you can gather all the required data within a relatively short period, usually about six weeks for bachelor programs.

You should also choose a topic that you already know something about so that you already have a frame of reference for your literature search and some understanding and interest in the theory behind your topic.

There are many ways to write a dissertation or thesis. Most universities and colleges offer their students very specific instructions on their preferred approach. However, we will examine a more general structure and approach to writing a dissertation.

You can then write each of the different sections of your dissertation without or in addition to specific instructions from your university.

# 1 Title Page

The very first page of your document contains the title of your dissertation, your name, your department, your institution, your study program, and your submission date.

Sometimes it also contains your student number, the name of your supervisor, and the university logo. Many programs set strict requirements for formatting the title page of the dissertation.

# 2 Acknowledgments

The Acknowledgments section is usually optional and gives you space to thank everyone who helped you write your dissertation. It could be your superiors, participants in your research, friends, or family members who supported you.

# 3 Abstract

The summary is a summary of your dissertation, usually about 150-300 words long. You must write it at the end of it after completing the rest of the dissertation. Make sure that in the summary:

  • Name the most important topic and objectives of your research

  • Describe the methods you use

  • Summarize the most important results

  • Set your conclusions

Although the summary is very short, it is the first part (and sometimes the only part) of your dissertation that people will read. It is therefore important that you do it correctly. If you are struggling to write a strong summary, consult our guide to writing a summary.

# 4 Table of Contents

List all your chapters and subheadings and their page numbers in the table of contents. The page with the content of the dissertation gives the reader an overview of your structure and facilitates navigation in the document.

All sections of your dissertation must be included in the table of contents, including the appendices. You can automatically create a table of contents in Word if you have used heading styles.

# 5 List of figures and tables

If you have used many tables and figures in your dissertation, you should mention them in a numbered list. You can set up this list automatically using the "Insert Label" feature in Word.

# 6 List of abbreviations

If you have used many abbreviations in your dissertation, you can include them in an alphabetical list of abbreviations so that the reader can easily locate their meaning.

# 7 Glossary

If you use very highly specialized terms that your reader does not know, it may be a good idea to include a glossary. List the terms alphabetically and explain each term with a short description or definition.

# 8 Introduction

In the introduction, you determine the topic, purpose, and relevance of your dissertation and tell the reader what he can expect in the rest of the dissertation. The introduction should:

  • Determine your research topic and provide the necessary background information to contextualize your work

  • Limit the focus and define the scope of the research

  • Discuss the status of existing research on this topic and show the relevance of your work to a broader issue or a broader debate

  • Clarify your research questions and objectives

  • Give an overview of the structure of your dissertation

Everything in the introduction should be clear, engaging, and relevant to your research. Finally, the reader needs to understand what your research is, why, and how. If you need further assistance, read our guide to writing a dissertation introduction & write my essay for me.

# 9 Literature Research / Theoretical Framework

Before you begin your research, you should have done a literature search to gain a thorough understanding of the academic work already available on your topic. This means:

  • Collect resources (eg books and magazine articles) and select the most appropriate

  • Critical evaluation and analysis of each source

  • Draw connections between them (eg topics, patterns, conflict, gaps) to create an overall point

In the chapter or section on the revision of the dissertation literature, you should not only summarize existing studies but develop a coherent structure and reasoning that leads to a clear basis or justification for your research. For example, it could show how your research:

  • Fixed a gap in the literature

  • Follow a new theoretical or methodological approach to the topic

  • Suggest a solution to an unresolved issue

  • Promote a theoretical debate

  • Build on existing knowledge and strengthen it with new data

Literature research often becomes the basis for a theoretical framework in which you define and analyze the most important theories, concepts, and models that determine your research. In this section, you can answer descriptive research questions on the relationship between concepts or variables.

# 10 Methodology

The methodology chapter or section describes how you conducted your research so that your reader can assess its validity. In general, you should include the following:

The general approach and type of research (eg qualitative, quantitative, experimental, ethnographic)

  • Your data collection methods (eg interviews, surveys, archives)

  • Information on where, when, and with whom the research was conducted

  • Your methods for data analysis (eg statistical analysis, discourse analysis)

  • Tools and materials you use (eg computer programs, laboratory equipment)

  • A discussion of all the obstacles you faced while conducting the research and how you overcame them

  • An evaluation or justification of your methods

Your goal in the methodology is to accurately report on what you have done and to convince the reader that it is the best approach to answer your research questions or objectives.

# 11 Results

Then report the results of your research. You can structure this section according to subquestions, hypotheses, or topics. Only report results that are relevant to your goals and research questions.

In some disciplines, the outcome area is strictly separated from the discussion, while in others it is combined.

In the results window, it can often be helpful to include tables, graphs, and charts. Think carefully about how you can best present your data, and do not add tables or figures that only repeat what you have written. You need to provide additional information or visualize the results in a way that adds value to your text.

Full versions of your data (eg interview minutes) can be attached.

# 12 Discussion

In the discussion, you examine the meaning and implications of your results about your research questions. Here you need to interpret the results in detail and discuss whether they meet your expectations and how well they fit the framework you have created in previous chapters.

If one of the results was unexpected, explain why it might be. It is a good idea to consider alternative interpretations of your data and to discuss the limitations that could affect the results.

The discussion should refer to other academic articles to show how your results match existing knowledge. You can also make recommendations for future research or practical measures.

# 13 Conclusion

The completion of the dissertation must answer the most important research question exactly and give the reader a clear understanding of your key argument.

In some academic conventions, the conclusion refers to a short section that precedes the discussion: first state your general conclusions, discuss and interpret their meaning.

In other contexts, however, the conclusion relates to the last chapter, in which you conclude your dissertation with a final reflection on what you did and how you did it. This type of conclusion often contains recommendations for research or practice.

In this section, it is important to show how your results contribute to knowledge in the field and why your research is important. What did you add to what was already known?

# 14 Reference List

You should include all the details of all the sources you have cited in a reference list (sometimes called a worklist or bibliography). It is important to follow a constant quotation style.

Each style has strict and specific requirements for formatting your sources in the reference list.

Common styles include APA and MLA. However, your program often specifies which citation style to use. Check the requirements and ask your driver if you are unsure.

# 15 Appendices

Your dissertation itself should only contain essential information that will help you answer your research question directly. Documents you use that do not fit most of your dissertation (such as interview transcripts, survey questions, or tables with full illustrations) can be added as attachments.

# 16 Editing and proofreading

This is only the first step to a well-written dissertation and ensures that all sections are in the right place. Allow enough time for editing and proofreading. Grammatical errors and sloppy formatting errors can affect the quality of your hard work.

You should plan to write and review different concepts of your dissertation or thesis before focusing on language errors, typos, and inconsistencies.

 

更新日
2021-04-07
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